Proper lubrication of machine tools is the responsibility of the operator. In
order to ensure that the machine runs properly and maintains its accuracy,
regular lubrication is required.
Before operating the lathe, make sure that all lubricants are at their proper
levels. Being that all lathes are different, it is impossible to cover the
lubrication schedule for all of the types of lathes found in the machine shop.
Use the charts found below as a guide for the proper lubrication points found on
most types of lathes. Use the chart to find similar lubrication points and the
types of lubrication needed for the machines in our shop. If you find that the
machine that you are using is drastically different from the machine found in
the illustration, ask an instructor for the lubrication schedule for your
Spindle bearings, headstock gearing, and shafts are lubricated continuously
from a distributor tank located beneath the headstock top cover. The oil is
supplied either by a pump or an oil slinger found in the headstock. Evidence of
supply is shown in an oil sight glass located on the headstock front face
Figure 1 If the machine is equipped with a pump, oil should be visible when
the motor is running. If the machine is equipped with a slinger, oil should be
visible in the headstock reservoir sight glass.
|Ensure that the oil level in the system is kept topped off. On lathes with an
oil pump, oil is usually added through a filler tube in the oil tank located
behind the headstock end guard cover. (Figure 2).
Figure 2 The oil filler tube is typically found behind the headstock end
Figure 3 Oil filler plug located on the top of the
headstock of a lathe equipped with an oil slinger lubrication system
|On lathes with an oil slinger, oil is usually added through a filler plug on
the headstock cover. (Figure 3).
|Some types of lathes are equipped with both a reservoir sight glass and an
oil flow sight glass (Figure 4). The reservoir sight glass is located on the
lower half of the headstock while the flow sight glass is located near the top
of the headstock.
Figure 4 Lathe headstock equipped with
both flow and reservoir sight glasses
|Gears in the gearbox are splash lubricated from an oil tank that is part
of the gearbox. An oil sight window is typically situated on the front or
side face of the gearbox (Figure 5).
Figure 5 When the lathe is off, oil
should be visible at all times in the gearbox oil sight window.
Figure 6 Typical filler elbow found behind the end cover of
|To top off or fill the gearbox, find the filler elbow behind the
headstock end cover (figure 6).
|The apron gears are splash lubricated from an oil tank that is part of the
apron. On new style lathes, the apron oil tank is also the reservoir for the
manually operated pump (Figure 7) that lubricates the bedways, cross slide ways,
Figure 7 Before operating the lathe, give the
one shot lubricator a pump to ensure proper lubrication to the bedways, cross
slide, and nut.
When the oil level falls below the level on the site glass on the apron
(Figure 8), the system can be filled through the filler plug found on the saddle
Figure 8 Apron oil sight glass
Figure 9 Apron oil filler plug
For trouble-free operation, keep the lathe clean and regularly maintained. Use
the generic lubrication chart in Figure 10 to locate and maintain a regular
lubrication schedule for the lathes in your machine shop.
Figure 10. General lubrication chart
||Grease each week - rack and end train gears (change
wheels) Shell Alvania RA.
- Chuck (manual) Molycote"D".
|Oil each week - Tailstock, Leadscrew, Endgear, Bushes and
Topslide, Shell Tellus T37 (ISO VG37)
|Apron. Check level and top up each week - Shell Tonna
TX68 (ISO VGT 68) Total capacity 1.2 litres.
|Headstock. Check level and top up each week - Shell
Tellus T37 (ISO VG37) Total capacity 16 litres.
|Gearbox. Check level and top up each week - Shell Tellus
T 37 (ISO VG 37) Total capacity 2.6 litres.